The aim of this research was to examine the effect of visual storytelling on externalizing and internalizing behaviors in children with oppositional defiant disorder. Method: This study was quasi-experimental (controlled pretest-posttest with follow-up). The statistical population included primary-school children in Tehran with oppositional defiant disorder. Using purposive sampling, we selected 22 primary-school children diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder visiting a learning and therapeutic center. Before the intervention, their parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist as a pre-test. In the next step, 13 visual storytelling sessions were held for the experimental group. At the end of the intervention, the parents completed the noted checklist for pre-test and follow-up. Results were analyzed using univariate and multivariate covariance analyses. Results: The results showed that visual storytelling significantly reduced externalizing behaviors on the post-test and follow-up. However, it significantly reduced internalizing behaviors only on the post-test, with no significant change in the follow-up. Conclusion: Visual storytelling can be used as an intervention method to decrease externalizing behaviors in children. Internalizing behaviors can also be reduced in case of an ongoing implementation of this method.
Mohammad Ali Fallahnejad, M.A.1, Farangis Kazemi, Ph.D.2, Shahla Pezeshk, Ph.D.3,
Mohammad Hossein Majde Rezaee, M.A.4, Vahid Rasooli, M.A.5
Received: 12.03.2016 Revised: 02.26.2017
Corresponding Author: M.A., General Psychology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University (Email: firstname.lastname@example.org).
2. Associate Professor of Psychology and Education of Exceptional Children, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Iran.
3. Associate Professor of Psychology and Education of Exceptional Children, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Iran.
4. M.A., General Psychology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University.
5. M.A., Personality Psychology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University.