The present research aims at investigating and extracting the principles of monotheistic education based on the teachings of the Quran and the Infallible Imams. One of the most fundamental challenges and issues of the common education system is the non-establishment of the comprehensive monotheistic attitude in the educated person, an issue that is much striking in the doubtful atmosphere of the present era. Indeed, although monotheism has been frequently and repeatedly referred to as the ultimate goal of Islamic education, the existing education system deals only with the initial stages of education by presenting some superficial materials on monotheism. In other educational stages, little attention is paid to this basic principle. In the present study, we have used a descriptive, analytical and deductive method to explore the Islamic texts regarding monotheism and education and extract the tenets and principles of monotheistic education based on the Quran and the views of the Infallible Imams. Considering the bases of monotheistic anthropology in the basis of human’s existential poverty, the principles such as the principle of knowledge, relationship and connection, supplication, avoiding pluralism, sincerity, and consent and satisfaction were investigated, and regarding the human’s movement towards God, we dealt with the principles of selection, great effort and strong resolution, proportion and harmony, elevation and transcendence, internal motion and continuation. Finally, the principles of admonition, affection, openness and aesthetics regarding the basis of divine nature and internal orientations specific to human beings were studied.