Effectiveness of Cognitive Rehabilitation of Verbal and Visuospatial Working Memory in Improving the Mathematical Performance of Students with Dyscalculia
Effectiveness of Positive Psychology Intervention on Self-Forgiveness and Resilience in Mothers of Children with Learning Disabilities
Comparing Emotionally Focused Therapy Training and Short-Term Self-Regulation Couple Therapy in Enhancing Dyadic Coping Strategies and Cognitive Emotion Regulation in Parents of Children with Intellectual Disability
Effectiveness of Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (ISTDP) on the Social Anxiety of Mothers of Children with Asperger Syndrome
The Role of Behavioral Problems and Adaptive Functions in Children with Developmental Delays on the Psychological Distress of Mothers
Content Factors of Professional Development for Teachers of Special Elementary Schools for Students with Intellectual Disability
Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the content factors of professional development for teachers of special elementary schools for students with intellectual disability in Tehran, Iran. Method: The present study was a mixed methods research. In the qualitative part, the population was composed of all the experts of education, of which 15 were selected through purposive sampling. The statistical population in the quantitative study comprised all elementary school teachers of students with intellectual disability in Tehran (n=347), of which 200 were selected based on Cochran’s formula through simple random sampling. To collect data, semi-structured interviews and a researcher-made questionnaire were employed. Qualitative data were analyzed through thematic analysis, and quantitative data were analyzed using the partial least squares method. Results: The results revealed that the content of teachers’ professional development consists of 10 factors: teachers’ attitudes, specialized subject knowledge, variety of learners and their special needs, design of educational strategies, evaluation methods, learning environments and models, participation and collaboration, information and communication technology, group and individual activities, and citizenship and personality education. Conclusion: In total, content factors explained about 95% of the variance in teachers’ professional development. From among these factors, learning environments and models had the highest (0.90) and evaluation methods had the lowest (0.81) factor loading
Effectiveness of Self-compassion training on anxiety, stress and depression in mothers of children with Autism
Objective: Choosing a strategy to control anxiety, stress and depression in mothers of children with Autism is crucial. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of training programs based on self-compassion on anxiety, stress and depression in mothers of children with Autism. Methods: A quasi-experimental research design of pre-test - post-test and follow-up was used to answer the research questions in this study. The population consisted of all mothers of children with autism referred to Omid-Asr center in Tehran in 1395. The sample consisted of 24 mothers of level one children with autism which were recruited through a convenient method of sampling. The sample were randomly assigned into two groups each of them 12 mothers as the experimental group and 12 mothers as the control group. The experimental group trained for 8 sessions in the field of self-compassion and the control group was put on the waiting list for a shorter version of the intervention. To measure the level of anxiety, stress and depression in mothers 21-DASS scale was used and descriptive statistics and analysis of covariance was used to analyze the data. Results: The results of the data analysis of covariance analysis showed that self-compassion training had a significant impact in reducing anxiety, stress and depression in mothers of children with Autism (p≤ 0/001). Conclusion: Therefore, according to the results of the findings, self-compassion training as psychological intervention strategy in reducing anxiety, stress and depression in mothers of children with Autism has been effective.
The relationship between mobility and orientation using white cane and mental health and personality traits among individuals with visual impairment
Objective: Orientation and mobility is the most important factor in independence and social participation of people with visual impairment. The main mode of independent mobility and orientation is using white cane. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between mobility and orientation using white cane and mental health and personality traits among individuals with visual impairment in Tehran, Iran Method: For this purpose, a correlation design was used. In this study 41 visually impaired persons from rehabilitation centers and university students in Tehran were selected by purposive sampling. Orientation and Mobility Inventory, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) in the form of structured and semi-structured interview were utilized. Finally, using correlation, multiple regression analysis and t and F tests data were analyzed. Result: Lying Scale (tend to improve your show) of EPI factors were correlated with orientation and mobility component. Also, problems in Iinterpersonal Sensitivity (feelings of inadequacy and inferiority, particularly in comparison to other people), Depression (clinical depression) and the score of Positive Symptom Total (PST) of SCL-90-R factors, were best predictors of orientation and mobility component. The differences between varying levels of employment and tunnel vision in terms of mobility and orientation component found. Conclusion: The results indicated that the role of mental health and personality traits on mobility and orientation is confirmed. However, as provided by improving the conditions of employment for people with visual impairment can imagine a better performance in mobility and orientation for them.
Psychometric properties of the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale–Third Edition (GARS-3) in individuals with autism: A pilot study
The effectiveness of safe parenting skills training program on parenting practices of mothers of children with signs of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems Lahijan city
Methods: This is an experimental study with pretest-posttest control group. The study population consisted of all mothers of preschool children (6-year-old) in Lahijan city. The initial sample size included 120 mothers of preschool children who were selected randomly. Finally, 30 mothers of children with internalizing and externalizing problems were selected and randomly divided into two groups: experimental group (n = 15) and control group (n = 15). Achenbach's Child Behavior Checklist (parent and teacher form) (1991) as a screening tool and Bamyrand''s questionnaire on parenting style (1972) were used in this study. Safe parenting skills training program which was designed by Aliakbari Dehkordi and Alipour (1394) was implemented in the experimental group during 8 sessions. Data were analyzed using Multivariate analysis of Covariance data (MANCOVA).
Results: The results showed that safe parenting skills training program impacts parenting style significantly (P0.01≥).
Conclusion: The results showed that safe parenting skills training programs improves authoritative parenting style and reduces strict parenting practices. Given the fact that parenting practices have a major role in providing mental health of children, using the safe parenting skills training program is recommended to mothers in order to manage safe relations with their children and to use positive parenting practices.
M. Bahrami Bidkalmeh*
Z. Gooyaa, Ph.D.**
To help with the improvement of the high school math curriculum, a theoretical framework named DNR (Duality-Necessity-Repeated Reasoning) was employed in order to identify activities and appropriate methods for teaching certain concepts in high school math. These activities and methods were initially used experimentally by the first author in real high school math classes, and then during the final stage of the experiment, the concepts of Cartesian coordinate system and the display of lines within this system were presented to three classes of 9th graders while their regular teacher was observing and giving critical feedback. The collected data revealed that the designed activities and methods facilitated learning the presented math concepts to a greater depth and fill many gaps impeding learning within the current curriculum.
Keywords: cognitive perspective, DNR framework, math learning activity, math curriculum, Cartesian coordinate system, high school
Date received: Jul. 9, 2017 Date accepted: Jun. 30, 2018
* Doctoral student in Teaching Math, Math Department, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran. firstname.lastname@example.org
** Professor of Teaching Math, Math Department, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran. email@example.com
Identification and Prioritization of High School Chemistry Teachers’ Occupational Duties and Tasks Using the DACUM Process
N. Arshadi, Ph.D.**
N. Moosaapoor, Ph.D.***
G. Yaadegaarzadeh, Ph.D.****
To improve the quality of any occupation within an organization, two important steps have to be taken: Identification of the duties and tasks related to that occupation, and the required competencies for the person who is expected to do the tasks. Taking these two steps for teachers of different learning areas such as chemistry can help improve professional skills and the quality of teaching. To this end, ten of the experts in this area were invited to participate in a workshop wherein the teaching profession was analyzed and the duties and tasks of a chemistry teacher were thoroughly identified using the DACUM process. The results were categorized and approved by the participants to include five duties each with a number of tasks: Teaching and learning management with 10 tasks; assessment and evaluation with 8 tasks; management and leadership in the learning environment with 9 tasks; learners’ development with 8 tasks; and professional development with 10 tasks. In order to prioritize these duties and tasks, a questionnaire with 45 items was constructed and then filled by the participants wherein they ranked different tasks in terms of importance, frequency, and hardship. Results show that the most important and frequent duty is assessment and evaluation, while the least priority was given to professional development. In terms of hardship no significant difference was found between different tasks; hence, prioritization was not possible. These findings can help identify a competent and effective chemistry teacher.
Keywords: occupational analysis, DACUM, duties and tasks, chemistry teacher, teaching chemistry
Date received: Jul. 9, 2017 Date accepted: Mar. 17, 2018
1.This paper is extracted from first author’s doctoral dissertation.
* Doctoral Student of Chemistry, University of Zanjan. firstname.lastname@example.org
** Assistant professor of Chemistry, University of Zanjan (Corresponding Author). email@example.com
*** Associate Professor of Curriculum Planning, Farhangian University, Tehran. firstname.lastname@example.org
**** Assistant Professor at Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran. email@example.com
V. Mehrbaani, Ph.D. *
The main purpose of this research has been to help with the improvement of the quality of schooling as it relates to the number of students in classrooms and its impact on academic achievement. Considering the importance of the quality of education, knowing about the existing conditions and the consequences of increasing/decreasing the number of students per class, could impact policies in regard to the distribution and allotment of educational resources. Current literature on the subject indicate two opinions on the matter: one considers increase in the number of students detrimental to the quality of teaching and learning, while the other regards a slight increase as an agent of improvement through bringing about competition. To clarify this matter a sample of 1294 4th graders of regular public schools in Tehran completed a questionnaire on their school performance/achievement and family conditions. Data analyses indicate that student concentration has no significant effect on grade point average and on math scores. On the other hand, family resources have a significant effect on students’ academic quality. For instance, the presence of father within the home, parental level of education, family income, and having been nursed by mother have a positive impact on the quality of education, while the death of father has a negative impact.
Keywords: class size, teaching, school, student, family
Date received: Apr. 5, 2017 Date accepted: Mar. 25, 2018
* Assistant Professor of Economics, University of Tehran (Corresponding Author). firstname.lastname@example.org
Z. Toolaabi, Ph.D. *
Y. Poorashraf, Ph.D. **
H. Abbaaspoor ***
To help with the development of the concept of job burnout, on the one hand, and a comprehensive picture of national scene in regard to research in this area, on the other, a set of 16 studies on the subject, conducted from 2009 to 2014, are meta-analyzed herein. Results show that from among all factors considered, organizational commitment with effect size of 0.361, quality of professional life, and emotional intelligence have the highest impact on occupational fatigue. Personnel’s health showed the least impact with effect size of 0.224.
Keywords: meta-analysis, effect size, job burnout, educational organizations
Date received: Feb. 13, 2017 Date accepted: Feb. 5, 2018
* Associate Professor of Management, Ilam University (Corresponding Author). email@example.com
** Associate Professor of Management, Ilam University. firstname.lastname@example.org
*** M.A. in Business Administration, Ilam University. email@example.com
Content Analysis of High School Textbooks on Religion and Life with Respect to the Standards Set by the National Curriculum
Content Analysis of High School Textbooks on Religion and Life with Respect to the Standards Set by the National Curriculum
M. Monaadi, Ph.D.**
M. Khaademi, Ph.D. ***
A.R. Kiamanesh, Ph.D.****
The main aim of this research has been to help with the improvement of the quality of education through an improvement in textbooks used. Given the orientation of the post-revolutionary Iranian government and its centralized system of education, the 2nd and 3rd year high school textbooks on religion and life were selected to be content analysed in terms of their correspondence to the national curriculum. The instrument used was constructed based on the indices drawn from the national curriculum. Data analyses revealed that the 2nd and 3rd year high school textbooks on religion and life are written based on the general themes of cognitive, affective, and behavioral dimensions as indicated by the national curriculum. Conceptually, the two textbooks cover a total of 709 concepts of which 313 are covered in the 2nd year textbook and the remaining 396 in the 3rd year textbook. However, conceptual attention is mostly given to the cognitive dimension with the frequency of 425. The least attended dimension is the affective with a frequency of only 87. It can be concluded that the authors have favored the cognitive dimension at the expense of the other two.
Keywords: content analysis, Religion & Life textbook, educational indices, national curriculum
Date received: Apr. 22, 2017 Date accepted: Apr. 5, 2018
* Doctoral graduate in Educational Psychology, Alzahra University (Corresponding Author). firstname.lastname@example.org
** Associate Professor, Department of Education and Psychology, Alzahra University. email@example.com
*** Associate Professor, Department of Education and Psychology, Alzahra University. firstname.lastname@example.org
**** Professor of Research and Evaluation, Kharazmi University. email@example.com
Improving Bilingual Students’ Language Skills through the Use of Teaching Model in Philosophy for Children and Community of Enquiry
M.R. Behrangi, Ph.D.**
B. Monfaredi Raaz, Ph.D.***
To help Turkmen bilingual students improve their language skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing, it was hypothesized that if the method used in teaching these skills were the same as that used in teaching philosophy to children revolving around the notion of community of enquiry, students’ language skills would develop. To test this hypothesis, a cluster sample of 103 third graders, selected in stages from among all third graders in North Khorasan Province, was divided into two groups of experimental and control with equal number of boys and girls in each group. All groups were pretested on language skills using a test constructed for this purpose and with adequate validity and internal consistency. The experimental groups went through a twenty-session course wherein the said model was utilized, while the control groups spent the time learning the skills regularly. All groups were post-tested. Data analyses revealed that the experimental groups’ skills improved much better than those of the control groups. No significant difference was observed between male and female students. Hence, the use of this method is recommended.
Keywords: community of enquiry, language skills, bilingual education, philosophy for children, teaching model
Date received: Apr. 3, 2017 Date accepted: May 6, 2018
* Doctoral student in Philosophy of Education, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran. firstname.lastname@example.org
** Professor of Educational Administration, Kharazmi University. email@example.com
*** Assistant Professor of Philosophy of Education, Farhangian University. firstname.lastname@example.org
Comparison of Achievement Motivation in Sports between Successful and Failed Female Participants in School Olympiads
M. Hallaaji, Ph.D.*
A. Eshraaghi, Ph.D.**
To help with the improvement of achievement motivation in sports among school children, it was deemed necessary to explore dimensions of sport achievement motivation in order to address any shortcomings therein. To this end, two groups of 40 female students who had participated in Ghazvin Province’s school Olympiads were selected, one representing those who have been successful and winning medals, and the other representing those who have not won any medals. Measuring the two groups’ sports achievement motivation with Gill and Deeter’s Questionnaire, the three motivational components of competitiveness, win orientation, and goal orientation of the two groups were determined. Data analyses lead to the finding of a significant difference between the two groups only in competitiveness. Hence, if physical education teachers concentrate on all dimensions of sport achievement motivation, students would benefit tremendously and sport activities would be more popular.
Keywords: achievement motivation, competitiveness, win orientation, goal orientation, school Olympiads
Date received: Feb. 4, 2017 Date accepted: Jan. 29, 2018
* Assistant Professor of Sport Sciences and Physical Education, Farhangian University (Corresponding Author). email@example.com
** Ph.D. in Sport Sciences and Physical Education, Physical Education Teacher, Tehran. firstname.lastname@example.org
*** M.A. in Sport Psychology, Physical Education Teacher, Gazvin. email@example.com
Enriching Home Learning Environment of Gifted Children: A Comparison between those who did Grade Skipping and their Counterparts
E. Talaee, Ph.D. 
H.R. Hassanabadi, Ph.D. 
G. Bararpour 
A. Seyed Mirzaee Jehaghi 
A.R. Baneshi 
The current study explored the difference between "home learning environments" (HLE) of gifted children who did grade skipping from grade 2 to 4 and those who did not. Home learning environment, an important predictor of children's educational attainment and social development, was analyzed through its two components: parental involvement in children's learning activities at home and parental engagement in local communities along with their children. The hypothesis was that parents of the experimental group (those who did grade skipping) provide a richer HLE compared to their counterparts. The data came from an ongoing longitudinal study which followed three groups of children from grade 2 to grade 4: a) the experimental group, b) the first control group who were classmates of the experimental group in grade 2 but went to grade 3 in the normal pace, c) the second control group who are the current classmates of the experimental group in grade 4 but are one year older. The findings rejected the hypothesis and showed that the differences between the three groups were not statistically significant. Although this requires further data to explain, it indicates that parents of all three groups do well in providing a rich HLE, no matter how gifted their children are, or it implies that parents of the experimental group did below the expected level, just similar to other two groups.
Keywords: grade skipping, home learning environment, parental involvement, parental engagement in local communities
Date received: Feb. 2, 2017 Date accepted: Nov. 25, 2017
. Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Tarbiyat Modares University, Tehran, Iran, (Corresponding Author), firstname.lastname@example.org
. Assistant Professor, Department of Educational Psychology, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran. email@example.com
. M.A. in Educational Research, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. firstname.lastname@example.org
. M.A. in Educational Psychology, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran. email@example.com
. Doctoral Student in Psychometrics, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran. firstname.lastname@example.org
A Theoretical Explanation for the Relationship between Types of Division of Labor and Emotion Management in Working Women
B. Saroukhani, Ph.D.
The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between types of division of labor and emotion management in working women. The statistical population of the study consisted of working women living in Zahedan. In the current study, the size of the statistical population was unlimited; hence, the sample size was determined to be 384 using Cochran formula and 384 working women were selected through purposive sampling method. The instrumentation included self-devised Emotion Management Questionnaire and Division of Labor Scale. The results showed that gender-sensitive division of labor (r = 0.61) and gender-insensitive division of labor (r=0.42) had the highest correlation with emotion management and the correlation coefficients between the variables were positive at 0.01 level of significance. Regression analysis also demonstrated that gender-insensitive division of labor and gender-sensitive division of labor explained 12.4 and 41.5 percent of variance in emotion management, respectively. These variables could entirely account for 53.9% of variance in emotion management.
Keywords: sociology of emotion, emotion management, emotional labor, division of labor
Date received: Apr. 20, 2016 Date accepted: Jul. 21, 2017
. Doctoral Student in Sociology, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran. email@example.com
. Assistant Professor, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch (Corresponding Author). firstname.lastname@example.org
. Full Professor, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran. email@example.com
The Relationship between Mothers’ Emotional Intelligence, Resilience, and Positive Thinking and Preschoolers’ Separation Anxiety
R. Yeganeh Darabi 
M. Hafezian, Ph.D. 
This study was carried out to investigate the relationship between mothers’ emotional intelligence, resilience, and positive thinking and preschoolers’ separation anxiety. The research design was descriptive, correlational. The statistical population of the study comprised 310 preschoolers attending child care centers in Sari. The sample size was determined to be 150 based on Krejcie and Morgan Table and the sample was drawn through random cluster sampling method. The instruments included Conner-Davidson Resilience Scale (2003), Emotional Intelligence Scale (Schutte et al., 1998), Oxford Happiness Inventory (Argyle et al., 1989), and the Preschool Anxiety Scale (PAS). The obtained data were analyzed via pearson correlation and regression analysis (enter method). The results showed that mothers’ emotional intelligence (and its different dimension such as emotion perception, managing emotions, utilizing emotions), resilience, and positive thinking were negatively associated with children’s separation anxiety. In addition, emotional intelligence, resilience and positive thinking are good predictors of separation anxiety of preschool children. Moreover, a significant share of variation in preschoolers’ separation anxiety has been explained by emotion perception, managing emotions, resilience, and happiness. According to the final model, managing emotions, emotion perception, resilience, and positive thinking were respectively the most effective factors in reducing children’s separation anxiety.
Keywords: emotional intelligence, resilience, positive thinking, separation anxiety
Date received: May 14, 2017 Date accepted: Jan. 9, 2018
. M.A. in Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Sari Branch, Sari, Iran. firstname.lastname@example.org
. Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Islamic Azad University, Bojnord Branch, Bojnord, Iran (Corresponding Author). email@example.com