The Effects of Spiritual Intelligence Training on Resiliency in Mothers of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Objective: Tolerance and resilience in the face of numerous problems faced by mothers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) plays a significant role in their health and that of their children. It is critical to identify training methods that can promote these abilities in mothers. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of spiritual intelligence training on the resilience of mothers of children with ADHD. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 30 mothers visiting private centers in Ahvaz, Iran, were selected through convenience sampling and randomly divided into experimental and control groups (n=15 each). Each group was assessed in terms of resilience on pre- and posttest and the experimental group received spiritual intelligence training. Data were analyzed using ANCOVA. Results: The results showed an increased resilience in the experimental group following training. The difference in posttest scores of resilience was significant across groups (p=0.001). Conclusion: The findings showed that spiritual intelligence training increased the scores of resiliency. Thus, spiritual intelligence training significantly improves the resilience of mothers of children with ADHD.
Teaching Philosophy for Children (P4C) Using a Community of Inquiry Method and its Impact on Students’ Accountability
L. Fathi 
Gh. Ahghar, Ph.D. 
The current study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of P4C (Philosophy for Children) instruction using a community of inquiry method on students’ accountability. This quasi-experimental research had a pretest posttest control group design. The statistical population of the study included all female students of public high schools in Tehran in academic year 2015-2016. For the purpose of sampling, 50 students whose accountability was lower than average were chosen via multi-stage sampling method and were randomly assigned to experimental (N=25) and control (N=25) groups. The experimental group received P4C instruction using a community of inquiry method in 10 ninety-minute sessions, while the control group did not receive the intervention. In the posttest, both experimental and control groups were given the accountability questionnaire. In order to analyze the data, descriptive and inferential statistics (between group analysis of covariance) were utilized. Results showed that accountability of the students who had received P4C instruction was significantly higher than those who had not received such instruction. Thus, P4C instruction using a community of inquiry method is effective in promoting students’ accountability.
Keywords: Philosophy for Children (P4C), community of inquiry method, accountability
Date received: Dec. 19, 2016 Date accepted: Dec. 20, 2017
. Doctoral Student in Philosophy of Education, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran. email@example.com
. Associate Professor, Organization for Educational Research and Planning, Academy of Scientific Studies in Education (Corresponding Author). firstname.lastname@example.org
. The present article was extracted from a doctoral dissertation by the first author.
Teachers’ Perception of their Social Status: A Phenomenological Study Based on their Lived Experiences
S. Mahdian 
R. Hakimzadeh, Ph.D. 
S. Safaei Movahed, Ph.D.
K. Salehi, Ph.D.
The current qualitative research was carried out to evaluate teachers’ perception of their social status based on a hermeneutic phenomenological approach. To this end, 16 male elementary school teachers in District 14 of Tehran were selected through purposive sampling method and the data were collected by semi-structured interviews. Results showed that few teachers were satisfied with their social status and valued the teaching profession as a spiritual endeavor. Nevertheless, majority of teachers were not content with their social status and contributed this to organizational, economic, social, and personal threats. Low wages and benefits and lack of professional prestige were among the most important indicators of the economic dimension. The most significant indicators of the organizational dimension included poor performance of authorities as well as recruitment, promotion and selection policy and standards. The identified indicators of the social dimension were money-oriented culture, standards of social status in the highly materialistic society, parents’ and students’ attitude towards teachers, status of the teaching profession compared with other occupations, and the performance of mass media. The identified indicators of the personal dimension comprised weak performance of some teachers, low professional commitment, personal feelings and thoughts, teachers’ negative mentality, personal behavior and professional ethics. In general, the present situation has led to teachers’ being demotivated at work, lack of professional commitment, desire to quit the job, regret of choosing teaching career, shirking, and fatigue. Keywords: teachers’ social status, perception of social status, social prestige, qualitative research
Date received: Oct. 24, 2016 Date accepted: Nov. 25, 2017
. M.A. in Educational Research, Faculty of Psychology and Education, University of Tehran. email@example.com
. Associate Professor, Faculty of Psychology and Education, University of Tehran (Corresponding Author). firstname.lastname@example.org
. Head of Monitoring and Evaluation Department, National Iranian Oil Company. email@example.com
. Assistant Professor, Faculty of Psychology and Education, University of Tehran, firstname.lastname@example.org
The Effectiveness of Emotionally Focused Couple Therapy in Improving Marital Adjustment and Couples’ Intimacy
M. Davoudvandi 
Sh. Navabinejad, Ph.D. 
V. Farzad, Ph.D. 
The present study sought to investigate the effectiveness of emotionally focused couple therapy in improving marital adjustment and couples’ intimacy. This quasi-experimental research had a pretest posttest control group design with a follow-up assessment. Thirty-two parents of school-aged children (16 couples) who were the clients of counseling clinics of Education Departments in Tehran were selected through convenience sampling method. These individuals were randomly assigned to two groups of emotionally focused couple therapy (N=16, 8 couples) and control (N=16, 8 couples). The emotionally focused couple therapy group was subjected to 10 treatment sessions and the control group was assigned to a waiting list. There was a subsequent follow-up two months later. The instruments comprised Spanier’s Dyadic Adjustment Scale (1976) and Walker and Thompson’s Intimacy Scale (1983). The data were analyzed using two-factor repeated measures ANOVA. Results showed that emotionally focused therapy led to effective and lasting changes in couples’ adjustment and intimacy components (p<0.05). Accordingly, the emotionally focused couple therapy can be used as an effective strategy to improve marital relationship, adjustment, as well as intimacy, and it ultimately leads to long-lasting, stable marriages. Keywords: couple therapy, emotionally focused, marital adjustment, couples’ intimacy
Date received: May 14, 2017 Date accepted: Nov. 7, 2017
. Doctoral Student in Counseling, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran. email@example.com
. Professor, Department of Psychology, Kharazmi University. (Corresponding author). firstname.lastname@example.org . Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Islamic Azad University. Central Tehran Branch, Iran. email@example.com
. The present article was extracted from a doctoral dissertation by the first author.
The Relationship between the Use of Virtual Social Networks, Perception of Social Interactions, Narcissism, and Positive Feelings toward Spouse among Couples Using Social Networks
R. Rezapour 
M.M. Zakeri 
G.H. Entesar Foumani, Ph.D. 
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the use of virtual social networks, perception of social interactions, narcissism, and positive feelings toward spouse among couples who use social networks. The design of the study was correlational. The population of the study comprised couples who used social networks in Zanjan in 2015. For the purpose of sampling, 120 couples who were frequent users of social networks were randomly selected. The instruments included a self-devised Internet Addiction Inventory, Perception of Social Interactions Questionnaire (Glass, 1994), Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Ames et al., 2006) and Positive Feelings Questionnaire (O'Leary & Turkewitz, 1981). For data analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis were utilized. Results showed that there was a significant negative relationship between the use of social networks, positive feelings toward spouse, and perception of social interactions, whereas a significant positive relationship was observed between the use of social networks and narcissism (P<0.01). Furthermore, there was a significant negative association between positive feelings toward spouse and narcissism, while positive feelings toward spouse was positively correlated with perception of social interactions (P<0.01). In general, it can be stated that social networks have negative impacts on couples’ relationships and they lead to rise in narcissistic traits, communication problems, and decreased positive feelings of couples toward each other.
Keywords: social networks, perception of social interactions, positive feelings toward spouse, narcissism
Date received: Jan. 18, 2017 Date accepted: Jun. 18, 2017
. M.A. in Clinical Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan Branch, Zanjan, Iran (Corresponding Author). firstname.lastname@example.org
. M.A. in Clinical Psychology, Kharazmi University. Tehran, Iran. email@example.com
. Assistant Professor in Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan Branch, Zanjan, Iran. firstname.lastname@example.org
A Sociological Explanation for Students' Tendency towards New Quasi-Religious Movements (Case Study: Students in East Azerbaijan Province)
(Case Study: Students in East Azerbaijan Province)
K. Kouhi, Ph.D. 
In recent decades, new quasi-religious movements have been a serious threat to the foundations of society and people’ beliefs, especially those of the youth. Hence, this study was undertaken to examine students' tendency towards new quasi-religious movements and its correlates. The current work was a survey-based quantitative research. The statistical population of the study comprised high school students from East Azerbaijan out of whom 570 individuals were selected via random stratified sampling. The data gathering tools were questionnaires with established face validity and reliability indices of higher than 0.8. For the purpose of data analysis, SPSS 24 and LISREL 8.8 were utilized. Descriptive results indicated that 25 out of every 100 students have shown inclination to new quasi-religious movements. Students showed the highest tendency to Sai Baba and Eckankar and the lowest tendency rates were observed for Paulo Coelho and Castañeda. The results showed that level of religiosity, the extent of familiarity with the movements, quality of leisure activities, and the extent of belief in magic and witchcraft have significant effects on students' inclination to such movements. More specifically, level of religiosity and quality of leisure activities play a hindering role and the level of familiarity with the movements as well as belief in magic and witchcraft play a promoting role in the tendency towards new quasi-religious movements.
Keywords: quasi-religious movements, Sai Baba, Eckankar, Castañeda, Paulo Coelho, Satanism
Date received: Feb. 26, 2017 Date accepted: Oct. 16, 2017
. Associate Professor, Social Science Research Center, University of Tabriz (Corresponding Author). email@example.com
Gh. A. Ahmadi, Ph.D. 
E. Reihani, Ph.D.
A. Tohidinezhad 
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of discourse-based mathematics instruction (through classroom discussion) on female fourth graders’ math performance. To this end, students’ mathematics performance in three cognitive domains of TIMSS, i.e., understanding, applying and reasoning, was probed. The statistical population of the study included all fourth grade female students in Shahriyar studying in public schools in academic year 2014-2015. The sample included 80 students who were selected by random multi-stage cluster sampling method and assigned to experimental and control groups. The instrument comprised a performance assessment test which included items from TIMSS cognitive math domains of knowing, applying and reasoning. The reliability of the measure was computed to be 0.77. The experimental group underwent the intervention (discourse-based mathematics instruction through classroom discussion) in three stages of "action", "exploration" and "discussion and summarizing" within the framework of Cirillo’s (2013) strategies for facilitating class discussions in 16 sessions. The results of MANOVA indicated that students’ math performance in the experimental group was higher than that of the control group in two cognitive domains of knowing and applying; however, no significant difference was observed between the two groups in the reasoning domain. In general, discourse-based mathematics instruction improves students’ math performance in TIMSS cognitive domains.
Keywords: mathematical discourse, math performance, cognitive domains of TIMSS including knowing, applying and reasoning
Date received: Feb. 4, 2017 Date accepted: Sep. 25, 2017
. Associate Professor of Curriculum Planning, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University. firstname.lastname@example.org
. Associate Professor of Mathematics Education, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University. email@example.com
. M.A. in Curriculum Planning, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University (Corresponding Author). firstname.lastname@example.org
M. Samiee Zafarghandi, Ph.D. 
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between hidden curriculum, its four components (teacher-student interaction, school rules and regulations, teaching methods, and evaluation methods), and students’ emotional intelligence. The research method was descriptive and correlational and the population of the study comprised senior high school girls in Tehran in academic year 2015-2016. The sample size was determined to be 384 according to Cochran’s formula and random cluster sampling method was utilized. More specifically, Tehran was divided into 5 clusters of north, south, east, west and center. Next, from each cluster one region, from each region, 2 high schools, and from each school, two classes were randomly selected. The instruments included Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (1997) and a self-devised Hidden Curriculum Questionnaire. Ten experts examined the questionnaires and then confirmed their content validity. The questionnaires also had acceptable reliability indices (coefficients higher than 0.70). The obtained data were analyzed by Pearson correlation and regression analysis. Results demonstrated that three components of hidden curriculum, i.e., teaching methods, evaluation methods, as well as teacher-student interaction, had a positive, significant relationship with students’ emotional intelligence. No association was observed between school rules and regulations and students’ emotional intelligence.
Keywords: hidden curriculum, emotional intelligence, female students, senior high school, curriculum components
Date received: Jul. 15, 2016 Date accepted: May 22, 2017
. Assistant Professor, Organization for Educational Research and Planning, Academy of Scientific Studies in Education. (Corresponding Author). email@example.com
Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of cognitive games (games based on executive functioning) on the attention and response inhibition of students with dyscalculia. Method: This study used the pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design with a control group. In this study, 20 students with dyscalculia selected through purposive sampling were randomly divided into control and experimental groups (n=10 each). The experimental group participated in twelve 60-minute sessions of cognitive games for six weeks. The omission error and commission error sub-scales of the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) were utilized to evaluate attention and response inhibition performance, respectively. Data were analyzed by MANCOVA. Results: The analysis of the data revealed a significant difference in results between the experimental group and the control group following intervention. Conclusion: Cognitive games improve the attention and response inhibition performance of students with dyscalculia
The Role of Parent-Child Interaction and Sensory Processing Pattern in Predicting Children's Internalizing and Externalizing Problems
Comparison of Mental Health, Psychological Capital, and Marital Intimacy in Mothers of Children with Hearing Impairment, Those with Intellectual Disabilities, and Normal Children
Objective: This research was conducted in order to compare mental health, psychological capital, and marital intimacy in mothers of children with hearing impairment, those with intellectual disabilities, and normal children. Method: The statistical population of the present descriptive-comparative study consisted of all mothers of children with hearing impairment (n=50), those with intellectual disabilities (n=50), and normal children (n=50) in care centers and primary schools of Khoy, Iran, in 2016. From this population, a sample of 120 people (40 per group) was selected using simple random sampling. Participants completed the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), Luthans’ Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ), and the Marital Intimacy Scale (MIS). Data were analyzed in SPSS 21 using MANOVA and one-way ANOVA with Scheffe post-hoc test. Results: Data analysis showed a statistically significant difference between mothers of children with intellectual disabilities and those with hearing impairment on the one hand, and mothers of normal children on the other, in terms of general mental health (f=12.20, p=0.0001) and psychological capital (f=14.36, p=0.0001(. However, there was no difference between the three groups in terms of marital intimacy (f=0.603, p=0.508). Conclusion: Mothers of children with mental disabilities and those with hearing impairment have a lower mental health and psychological capital than mothers of normal children, but mothers of all three groups have the same level of marital intimacy.
Effect of Self-Controlled Feedback and its Frequency on Motor Learning in Children with Hearing Impairment
The Efficacy of a Social Skills Group Intervention Based on DeRosier Program for Improving Comunication, Cooperation, Assertion, and Empathy in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Improving the Social Adjustment of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder by Expanding the Zone of Proximal Development in the Context of Creative Drama
Objective: The present study aimed to examine the effectiveness of creative drama on the social adjustment of children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by expanding the zone of proximal development. Method: This controlled quasi-experimental study used the pretest-posttest design. The sample included 30 participants selected through convenience sampling and based on medical conditions (whether they took medications or not) with their parents’ permission and then randomly assigned to experimental and control groups (n=15 each). The experimental group was taught using creative drama and the control group was instructed using lectures. The data collection instrument was a researcher-made 28-item social adjustment questionnaire scored on a Likert scale. The questionnaire measured four areas of social adjustment in children, including a) participating in group work, b) respecting the rights of others, c) belief in the values and ethics of the group or community, and d) commitment to and respect for family and friends. ANCOVA was applied for data analysis. Results: Results indicated that there is a significant difference between the effects of lecture and creative drama in favor of creative drama on all four areas of social adjustment in children with ADHD (p<0.05). Conclusion: It is better to use creative drama compared to lectures in order to improve the social adjustment of children with ADHD.
The Effect of Braitonic Exercise on the Motor Skills of Educable Children with Intellectual Disability
Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of Braitonic exercise on the gross motor skills of educable boys with intellectual disability. Method: In this quasi-experimental study, from among educable male students with intellectual disability, 30 participants with the chronological age of 7-10 years who were free of any disease or movement limitation were selected. After matching based on age, height, and weight, they were randomly divided into two homogeneous groups: experimental (n=15) and control (n=15). Exercises were performed in three 60-minute sessions per week for 8 weeks. Ulrich’s Test of Gross Motor Development was used as pre- and posttest. Results: The results showed that there is no significant difference between the two groups on pretest, while significant differences were observed in the scores of the experimental group from pre- to posttest. In fact, the effect of Braitonic exercise the gross motor skills was confirmed. Conclusion: Based on findings, it seems that Braitonic exercise can help improve the motor skills of children with intellectual disability.
Objective: This study aimed to examine the career resiliency of teachers of special schools based on coping styles with the mediating role of religious beliefs. Method: The statistical population of this descriptive-correlational study consisted of all teachers of special schools in Mazandaran Province, Iran. Through cluster sampling, 200 teachers of special schools were selected. In this study, the Special Education Career Resilience Scale (Sotomayor, 2012), the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (Endler & Parker, 1990), and the Centrality of Religiosity Scale-15 (Huber & Huber, 2012) were used. Results: Results showed that problem-focused coping style and emotion-focused coping style affect teachers’ career resiliency positively and negatively, respectively, and there is a significant positive correlation between religious belief and resiliency. In addition, all dimensions of religiosity have a significant positive correlation with coping style (problem-oriented). Moreover, religious beliefs have a mediating role between coping style and resiliency. Conclusion: By teaching appropriate coping styles to teachers, it is possible to increase their career resiliency which enhances the quality of teaching, thereby increasing learners’ ability to learn better.
A Standard Model for Measuring Professional Competencies of Teachers in the Islamic Republic of Iran
S. Askari Matin*
G.R. Kiyaani, Ph.D. **
Professional development and learning for teachers is an effective approach to guaranteeing the quality of output in educational systems. Such an undertaking could lead to higher levels of competency among teachers as an important intermediary goal. To develop a standard model to measure professional competencies of teachers 16 national, international, and scientific documents were perused for basic concepts, themes, and subjects, leading to a set of 7 areas, 33 main domains, and 158 indices of competency named “standard model for measuring professional competencies of teachers in I.R. Iran”. The seven areas are: planning and preparation for teaching, planning and designing for learning, management of learning environment, effective teaching, organizational responsibility and professional development, social capital and cultural activity, and spirituality, morality, and believe in God. This model can fulfill the need for making policies and preparing instruments compatible with the current conditions, as well as theoretical and practical considerations in the I.R. Iran.
Keywords: model, measurement, teacher training, professional competency, metasynthesis, I.R. Iran
Date received: May, 16, 2017 Date accepted: Jan. 13, 2018
*Doctoral Student in Teaching English, Tarbiyat Modares University, firstname.lastname@example.org
**Associate Professor of Teaching English, Tarbiyat Modares University, (Corresponding author), email@example.com
Designing a Model for Evaluating the Performance of Research Departments within the Provincial Divisions of MoE
M.R. Behrangi, Ph.D. **
H.R. Aaraasteh, Ph.D. ***
B. Abdollaahi, Ph.D. ****
To improve the performance of the departments of research within the provincial divisions of Ministry of Education, based on the views of experts and the content of all administrative documents related to research within the ministry, a model was designed consisting of 15 areas in categories of input (5 indices), process (5), and output, etc.(5). The experts, numbering 8, were purposefully selected from among all the heads of provincial research departments and their staff, and then interviewed. The documents content analyzed included those stating the goals and objectives of research, basic activities, and needed supplies for research. Initial data gathering yielded a set of 99 indices which were screened further in a session with 5 of the interviewed experts leading to the elimination of 22 indices. It is the remaining 77 indices that constitute the 15 areas in the categories mentioned.
Keywords: performance evaluation, provincial research departments, research in MoE, indices of performance
Date received: Apr.16, 2016 Date accepted: Feb. 18, 2017
* Doctoral Student in Educational Administration, Kharazmi University (Corresponding author), firstname.lastname@example.org
**Professor of Educational Administration, Kharazmi University, email@example.com
***Professor of Educational Administration, Kharazmi University, firstname.lastname@example.org
****Associate Professor of Educational Administration, Kharazmi University, email@example.com
Teachers Participating in Professional Learning Activities: The Role of Personal, Organizational, and Administrative Factors
H. Motaharinejaad, Ph.D. **
H. Aazari, Ph.D. ***
To help with the improvement in professional learning of teachers the opinions of 190 elementary school teachers on developmental leadership, cooperation among teachers, internalization of school objectives, self-efficacy, and teachers’ participation in professional activities were sought using a questionnaire constructed on the basis of the study’s theoretical foundation and previous research. The analyses of the so collected data reveal that cooperation among teachers, self-efficacy, and internalization of school objectives as one’s own are the most effective factors on teachers’ participation in professional learning activities. Developmental leadership, not only affects cooperation among teachers, but coupled with cooperative decision making, affects teachers’ professional learning. Finally, it is concluded that teachers’ participation in professional learning activities is influenced by systemic and out-of-school factors as well, that need further research.
Keywords: professional learning, self-efficacy, internalization of school objectives as one’s own, cooperative decision making, developmental leadership
Date received: Feb. 8, 2017 Date accepted: Jan. 16, 2018
*M.A. in Educational Administration, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, firstname.lastname@example.org
** Assistant Professor of Educational Administration, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman (Corresponding author), email@example.com
*** Assistant Professor of Educational Administration, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman: firstname.lastname@example.org