Journal of Exceptional Children

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Journal of Exceptional Children - Journal articles for year 2018, Volume 18, Number 2
Updated: 4 weeks 6 hours ago

Effectiveness of Cognitive Rehabilitation of Verbal and Visuospatial Working Memory in Improving the Mathematical Performance of Students with Dyscalculia

Sat, 11/17/2018 - 12:25
Objective: The present study was conducted to study the effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation of verbal and visuospatial working memory in improving the mathematical performance of students with dyscalculia. Method: This research was a quasi-experimental study with experimental and control groups. The sample included 30 3rd-grade female students suffering from dyscalculia, selected using purposive sampling and classified into three groups through random assignment: verbal working memory rehabilitation, visuospatial working memory rehabilitation, and control group (n=10 each). The sample was selected on the basis of DSM-5 criteria, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Assessment of Persian Reading Ability (APRA) Test, and Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4). After conducting KayMath Mathematics Test and n-back verbal and visuospatial working memory tests in all groups, one group received verbal working memory intervention and the other one received visuospatial working memory intervention for 20 sessions of 45 minutes each. At the end of the interventions and one month later (follow-up), mathematical performance and verbal and visuospatial working memory were assessed again in all groups. Results: The results indicated that both verbal and visuospatial working memory interventions significantly increased the scores of students’ mathematical performance. Conclusion: Based on findings, interventions conducted for working memory rehabilitation can be used as complementary interventions to resolve the problems of students with dyscalculia.

Effectiveness of Positive Psychology Intervention on Self­-Forgiveness and Resilience in Mothers of Children with Learning Disabilities

Sat, 11/17/2018 - 12:25
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of positive psychology intervention on self-forgiveness and resilience in mothers of children with learning disabilities in Sabzevar, Iran. Method: This study was a controlled quasi-experimental research with a pretest-posttest design. The statistical population consisted of all mothers of children with learning disabilities aging 6 to 12 years and living in Sabzevar during academic year 2016-2017, of whom 34 were selected according to inclusion criteria and assigned to experimental (n=17) and control (n=17) groups through simple randomization. After administering pretests, including  the Self-Forgiveness Scale of Wohl, DeShea, and Wahkinney, and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, the experimental group received positive psychology intervention for 8 sessions of 90 minutes, while the control group received no intervention. At the end of the program, posttests were administered to both groups. The data were analyzed using descriptive (mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (analysis of covariance) in SPSS 23. Results: The results showed that positive psychology intervention has a significant effect on self-forgiveness and resilience in mothers of children with learning disabilities in Sabzevar (p£0.001). Conclusion: Positive psychology is an effective intervention program for helping the mothers of children with learning disabilities.

Comparing Emotionally Focused Therapy Training and Short-Term Self-Regulation Couple Therapy in Enhancing Dyadic Coping Strategies and Cognitive Emotion Regulation in Parents of Children with Intellectual Disability

Sat, 11/17/2018 - 12:25
Objective: This research aimed at comparing the impact of emotionally focused therapy training (EFT) and short-term self-regulation couple therapy (SRCT) on cognitive emotion regulation and dyadic coping strategies of parents of children with intellectual disabilities. Method: This study was a controlled quasi-experimental research with an applied approach involving a pretest-posttest-follow-up (one month) design. The sample comprised of 41 couples with children with intellectual disabilities randomly assigned to two experimental groups (n=12 in EFT and n=14 in SRCT) and a control group (n=15). Ten sessions of EFT and eight sessions of SRCT (once a week) were provided for experimental groups. Data from the Dyadic Coping Strategies Questionnaire and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire were analyzed by the complex repeated-measures design test. Results: Results demonstrated that EFT and SRCT led to an increase in the scores of cognitive emotion regulation and caused improvements in dyadic coping strategies in experimental groups, and results were persistent after one month. Upon comparing the two approaches, short-term self-regulation couple therapy indicated greater effectiveness. Conclusion: In light of the roles of cognitive emotion regulation and dyadic coping strategies in couples’ interaction, it is recommended that emotionally focused and self-regulative methods be used in couple therapy to improve dyadic coping strategies and cognitive emotion regulation and reduce marital conflicts.
 

Effectiveness of Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (ISTDP) on the Social Anxiety of Mothers of Children with Asperger Syndrome

Sat, 11/17/2018 - 12:25
Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy (ISTDP) on the social anxiety of mothers of children with Asperger  syndrome. Method: This study was a controlled quasi-experimental research with a pretest-posttest design. The population consisted of all mothers of children with Asperger syndrome in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran, in 2016. With the collaboration of the Office of Special Education, records of students aging 7-12 years old with Asperger syndrome were examined. Then, 16 mothers of children with Asperger syndrome were selected through convenience sampling and randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The standardized Social Anxiety Scale (SAS) was administered as pre- and posttest.  The treatment protocol, based on Davanloo approach, was implemented on the experimental group individually twice a week for 12 sessions of 60 minutes each, while the control group received no intervention. Data analysis was conducted using descriptive and inferential statistics (analysis of covariance). Results: The results showed that, after controlling for pretest scores, there is a significant difference between the two groups in social anxiety (p<0.05). Conclusion: It can be concluded that the ISDTP is effective in reducing social anxiety in mothers of children with Asperger syndrome.

The Role of Behavioral Problems and Adaptive Functions in Children with Developmental Delays on the Psychological Distress of Mothers

Sat, 11/17/2018 - 12:25
Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the role of behavioral problems and adaptive functions of primary school children with developmental delays on the psychological distress of mothers. Method: The present research was a descriptive-correlational study. The statistical population consisted of children aging 6-11 years old with developmental delays, including those with autism who sought help at rehabilitation centers, and also students with special needs in Tabriz, Iran, during the academic year 2014-2015. Using the convenience sampling method, 100 participants were selected. Children's mothers completed the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, short form of Mental Symptoms Test, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, and Parents’ Stress Index. Results: Data were analyzed through multiple regression in SPSS. Results showed that there is a positive relationship between components of behavioral problems and adaptive functions in children with developmental delays and the psychological distress of their mothers. Behavioral problems and adaptive functions predicted 25% and 63% of the variance in psychological distress, respectively. Conclusion: The findings indicated that psychological distress is more common among mothers of children with developmental delays, which may be due to behavioral problems and low adaptive functions among these children.

Content Factors of Professional Development for Teachers of Special Elementary Schools for Students with Intellectual Disability

Sat, 11/17/2018 - 12:25

Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the content factors of professional development for teachers of special elementary schools for students with intellectual disability in Tehran, Iran. Method: The present study was a mixed methods research. In the qualitative part, the population was composed of all the experts of education, of which 15 were selected through purposive sampling. The statistical population in the quantitative study comprised all elementary school teachers of students with intellectual disability in Tehran (n=347), of which 200 were selected based on Cochran’s formula through simple random sampling. To collect data, semi-structured interviews and a researcher-made questionnaire were employed. Qualitative data were analyzed through thematic analysis, and quantitative data were analyzed using the partial least squares method. Results: The results revealed that the content of teachers’ professional development  consists of 10 factors: teachers’ attitudes, specialized subject knowledge, variety of learners and their special needs, design of educational strategies, evaluation methods, learning environments and models, participation and collaboration, information and communication technology, group and individual activities, and citizenship and personality education. Conclusion: In total, content factors explained about 95% of the variance in teachers’ professional development. From among these factors, learning environments and models had the highest (0.90) and evaluation methods had the lowest (0.81) factor loading

Effectiveness of Self-compassion training on anxiety, stress and depression in mothers of children with Autism

Sat, 11/17/2018 - 12:25

Objective: Choosing a strategy to control anxiety, stress and depression in mothers of children with Autism is crucial. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of training programs based on self-compassion on anxiety, stress and depression in mothers of children with Autism. Methods: A quasi-experimental research design of pre-test - post-test and follow-up was used to answer the research questions in this study. The population consisted of all mothers of children with autism referred to Omid-Asr center in Tehran in 1395. The sample consisted of 24 mothers of level one children with autism which were recruited through a convenient method of sampling. The sample were randomly assigned into two groups each of them 12 mothers as the experimental group and 12 mothers as the control group. The experimental group trained for 8 sessions in the field of self-compassion and the control group was put on the waiting list for a shorter version of the intervention. To measure the level of anxiety, stress and depression in mothers 21-DASS scale was used and descriptive statistics and analysis of covariance was used to analyze the data. Results: The results of the data analysis of covariance analysis showed that self-compassion training had a significant impact in reducing anxiety, stress and depression in mothers of children with Autism (p≤ 0/001). Conclusion: Therefore, according to the results of the findings, self-compassion training as psychological intervention strategy in reducing anxiety, stress and depression in mothers of children with Autism has been effective.

The relationship between mobility and orientation using white cane and mental health and personality traits among individuals with visual impairment

Sat, 11/17/2018 - 12:25

Objective: Orientation and mobility is the most important factor in independence and social participation of people with visual impairment. The main mode of independent mobility and orientation is using white cane. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between mobility and orientation using white cane and mental health and personality traits among individuals with visual impairment in Tehran, Iran Method: For this purpose, a correlation design was used. In this study 41 visually impaired persons from rehabilitation centers and university students in Tehran were selected by purposive sampling. Orientation and Mobility Inventory, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) in the form of structured and semi-structured interview were utilized. Finally, using correlation, multiple regression analysis and t and F tests data were analyzed. Result: Lying Scale (tend to improve your show) of EPI factors were correlated with orientation and mobility component. Also, problems in Iinterpersonal Sensitivity (feelings of inadequacy and inferiority, particularly in comparison to other people), Depression (clinical depression) and the score of Positive Symptom Total (PST) of SCL-90-R factors, were best predictors of orientation and mobility component. The differences between varying levels of employment and tunnel vision in terms of mobility and orientation component found. Conclusion: The results indicated that the role of mental health and personality traits on mobility and orientation is confirmed. However, as provided by improving the conditions of employment for people with visual impairment can imagine a better performance in mobility and orientation for them.

Psychometric properties of the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale–Third Edition (GARS-3) in individuals with autism: A pilot study

Sat, 11/17/2018 - 12:25
The purpose of this preliminary study was to study the psychometric properties of the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-3 (GARS-3). Participants included children and adolescents diagnosed with autism who referred to autistic therapeutic centers in Tehran, of which 200 were selected (113 male and 87 female, mean of ages was 11.5 with SD=3.70), and we asked from their parents to complete GARS-3 and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The results showed that internal consistency of GARS-3 was very good. Results also confirmed content, convergent and construct validity of the GARS-3.  In general, results yielded that GARS-3 is a reliable and valid assessment tool to be used with individuals with autism.
 

The effectiveness of safe parenting skills training program on parenting practices of mothers of children with signs of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems Lahijan city

Sat, 11/17/2018 - 12:25
Objective: This study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of safe parenting skills training program on parenting practices of mothers of children with signs of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems Lahijan city.
Methods: This is an experimental study with pretest-posttest control group. The study population consisted of all mothers of preschool children (6-year-old) in Lahijan city. The initial sample size included 120 mothers of preschool children who were selected randomly. Finally, 30 mothers of children with internalizing and externalizing problems were selected and randomly divided into two groups: experimental group (n = 15) and control group (n = 15). Achenbach's Child Behavior Checklist (parent and teacher form) (1991) as a screening tool and Bamyrand''s questionnaire on parenting style (1972) were used in this study. Safe parenting skills training program which was designed by Aliakbari Dehkordi and Alipour (1394) was implemented in the experimental group during 8 sessions. Data were analyzed using Multivariate analysis of Covariance data (MANCOVA).
Results: The results showed that safe parenting skills training program impacts parenting style significantly (P0.01≥).
Conclusion: The results showed that safe parenting skills training programs improves authoritative parenting style and reduces strict parenting practices. Given the fact that parenting practices have a major role in providing mental health of children, using the safe parenting skills training program is recommended to mothers in order to manage safe relations with their children and to use positive parenting practices.