Journal of Exceptional Children

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Journal of Exceptional Children - Journal articles for year 2018, Volume 18, Number 1
Updated: 1 week 9 hours ago

The Effects of Spiritual Intelligence Training on Resiliency in Mothers of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Mon, 10/08/2018 - 15:08

Objective: Tolerance and resilience in the face of numerous problems faced by mothers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) plays a significant role in their health and that of their children. It is critical to identify training methods that can promote these abilities in mothers. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of spiritual intelligence training on the resilience of mothers of children with ADHD. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 30 mothers visiting private centers in Ahvaz, Iran, were selected through convenience sampling and randomly divided into experimental and control groups (n=15 each). Each group was assessed in terms of resilience on pre- and posttest and the experimental group received spiritual intelligence training. Data were analyzed using ANCOVA. Results: The results showed an increased resilience in the experimental group following training. The difference in posttest scores of resilience was significant across groups (p=0.001). Conclusion: The findings showed that spiritual intelligence training increased the scores of resiliency. Thus, spiritual intelligence training significantly improves the resilience of mothers of children with ADHD.  

Teaching English as a Foreign Language to Students with Special Needs: A Review Study

Mon, 10/08/2018 - 15:08
Objective: The present study aimed to examine the process of teaching English as a foreign language to students with special needs (hearing impairment, visual impairment, autism spectrum, intellectual disabilities, specific learning disorder, speech and language impairment, emotional and behavioral disorders, physical and mobility impairment, and multiple disabilities). Method: The present descriptive-analytical study retrieved relevant studies dating from 1964 to 2017 available on Google Scholar, Scientific Information Database, and the Comprehensive Portal of Humanities using the secondary research method. Afterwards, the selected studies were reviewed, analyzed, and categorized. Results & Conclusion: There are specific strategies and methods of teaching English as a foreign language to each group of students with special needs. These include the application of the visual approach for teaching vocabulary (for students with hearing impairment); use of print or English Braille (for those with visual impairment); repetition of activities (for those with autism spectrum); application of the communicative approach, lexical approach, and total physical response (for those with intellectual disabilities); use of multisensory and phonics approaches (for those with specific learning disorder); incorporation of speech-language therapy techniques and adaptation of educational content (for those with language and communication difficulties); application of behavioral interventions in the classroom (for those with emotional and behavioral disorders); facilitation of access to educational equipment (for those with physical and mobility impairment); and focus on general communication and adaptive abilities (for those with multiple disabilities). The English teaching program in Iran should be compatible with the abilities of students with special needs. Therefore, it is necessary to modify and localize teaching materials and provide educational supports.

The Effect of Cognitive Games on Attention and Response Inhibition in Students with Dyscalculia

Tue, 07/31/2018 - 14:51

Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of cognitive games (games based on executive functioning) on the attention and response inhibition of students with dyscalculia. Method: This study used the pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design with a control group. In this study, 20 students with dyscalculia selected through purposive sampling were randomly divided into control and experimental groups (n=10 each). The experimental group participated in twelve 60-minute sessions of cognitive games for six weeks. The omission error and commission error sub-scales of the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) were utilized to evaluate attention and response inhibition performance, respectively. Data were analyzed by MANCOVA. Results: The analysis of the data revealed a significant difference in results between the experimental group and the control group following intervention. Conclusion: Cognitive games improve the attention and response inhibition performance of students with dyscalculia


The Role of Parent-Child Interaction and Sensory Processing Pattern in Predicting Children's Internalizing and Externalizing Problems

Tue, 07/31/2018 - 14:51
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the role of parent-child interaction and sensory processing pattern in predicting children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Method: Using a correlational design, 120 elementary-school students aging 11 and 12 years (67 male and 53 female) were selected from 9 schools of Districts 1, 9, and 18 of Tehran, Iran, through cluster sampling. Then, 69 children with internalizing and externalizing problems were identified by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and divided into two internalizing (n=20) and externalizing (20 people) groups in the final analysis. Next, the Parent-Child Interaction Questionnaire and sensory processing profile were completed. Discriminant function was used to analyze the data. Results: The results of discriminantion analysis showed that sensory-seeking had the strongest relationship with this function and distinguished the externalizing group from the internalizing one. However, the distinguishing power of the other three variables (sensory sensitivity, sensory avoidance, and conflict in parent-child relationship, respectively) was weaker. In other words, sensory-seeking was the dominant style of sensory processing in children with externalizing problems, while sensory sensitivity and sensory avoidance were the dominant styles of sensory processing in children with internalizing problems, respectively. Moreover, children with externalizing problems had more conflicts in relationships with their parents. Conclusion: Treatment must focus on sensory processing pattern for children with behavioral-emotional problems and training parents about such individual differences while enhancing positive interactions and providing conflict resolution training to parents in order to reduce children's behavioral-emotional pro

Comparison of Mental Health, Psychological Capital, and Marital Intimacy in Mothers of Children with Hearing Impairment, Those with Intellectual Disabilities, and Normal Children

Tue, 07/31/2018 - 14:51

Objective: This research was conducted in order to compare mental health, psychological capital, and marital intimacy in mothers of children with hearing impairment, those with intellectual disabilities, and normal children. Method: The statistical population of the present descriptive-comparative study consisted of all mothers of children with hearing impairment (n=50), those with intellectual disabilities (n=50), and normal children (n=50) in care centers and primary schools of Khoy, Iran, in 2016. From this population, a sample of 120 people (40 per group) was selected using simple random sampling. Participants completed the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), Luthans’ Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ), and the Marital Intimacy Scale (MIS). Data were analyzed in SPSS 21 using MANOVA and one-way ANOVA with Scheffe post-hoc test. Results: Data analysis showed a statistically significant difference between mothers of children with intellectual disabilities and those with hearing impairment on the one hand, and mothers of normal children on the other, in terms of general mental health (f=12.20, p=0.0001) and psychological capital (f=14.36, p=0.0001(. However, there was no difference between the three groups in terms of marital intimacy (f=0.603, p=0.508). Conclusion: Mothers of children with mental disabilities and those with hearing impairment have a lower mental health and psychological capital than mothers of normal children, but mothers of all three groups have the same level of marital intimacy.

Effect of Self-Controlled Feedback and its Frequency on Motor Learning in Children with Hearing Impairment

Tue, 07/31/2018 - 14:51
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of self-controlled feedback and its frequency on motor learning in children with hearing impairment. Methods: Forty-eight individuals with hearing impairment participated in this study and produced a certain force by a dynamometer. In the first experiment, participants were divided into two homogenous groups (n=12 each) based on pretest scores in terms of the type of feedback control (self-controlled group/yoked group). In the second experiment, they were divided into two homogenous groups (n=12 each) according to the frequency of feedback (30% feedback/free feedback). The participants produced a certain force in 6 blocks of 10 trials. Retention and transfer tests were performed 24 hours after the practice phase, and data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA and independent samples t-test. Results: The results indicated that all groups showed progress in the acquisition phase of both experiments. No significant difference was observed in the acquisition test between the two experiments. However, a significant effect was found on the retention test in both experiments, and the ‘self-controlled’ and ‘self-controlled with free feedback’ groups showed a superior performance. The ‘self-controlled’ group in the first experiment and the ‘self-controlled with free feedback’ group in the second experiment demonstrated a better performance in the transfer phase. Conclusion: This study showed that self-controlled feedback improves performance. Moreover, limiting self-controlled feedback up to 30% does not optimize performance.

The Efficacy of a Social Skills Group Intervention Based on DeRosier Program for Improving Comunication, Cooperation, Assertion, and Empathy in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Tue, 07/31/2018 - 14:51
Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a social skills group intervention based on DeRosier Program for improving communication, cooperation, assertion, and empathy in children with autism spectrum disorders. Method: The study employed an A-B-A single-subject design. Using purposive sampling, three students with autism spectrum disorders were selected. The baseline was drawn for intended areas using the Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS). Based on DeRosier social skills training program, training sessions were held in 20 sessions (one 40-minute session per week). Evaluation was performed using SSIS during each session and after every 3 sessions. Also, the same questionnaire was completed by the students’ trainer one month later in order to track the training results. Results: Based on the visual analysis of data, this program improved the skills of communication (PND for the first, second, and third participant, respectively: 85.71%, 85.71%, and 71.43%), cooperation (PND for participants, respectively: 85.71%, 71.43%, and 100%), and assertion (PND for participants, respectively: 100%, 57.71%, and 71.43%). However, it was not effective in improving empathy skills for the third participant (PND for participants, respectively: 100%, 71.43%, and 0.0%). Conclusions: The results showed the effectiveness of DeRosier Program in improving social skills. The nature of group intervention and creating opportunities for practice and receiving feedback can facilitate the growth of social skills in children with autism spectrum disorders.

Improving the Social Adjustment of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder by Expanding the Zone of Proximal Development in the Context of Creative Drama

Tue, 07/31/2018 - 14:51

Objective: The present study aimed to examine the effectiveness of creative drama on the social adjustment of children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by expanding the zone of proximal development. Method: This controlled quasi-experimental study used the pretest-posttest design. The sample included 30 participants selected through convenience sampling and based on medical conditions (whether they took medications or not) with their parents’ permission and then randomly assigned to experimental and control groups (n=15 each). The experimental group was taught using creative drama and the control group was instructed using lectures. The data collection instrument was a researcher-made 28-item social adjustment questionnaire scored on a Likert scale. The questionnaire measured four areas of social adjustment in children, including a) participating in group work, b) respecting the rights of others, c) belief in the values and ethics of the group or community, and d) commitment to and respect for family and friends. ANCOVA was applied for data analysis. Results: Results indicated that there is a significant difference between the effects of lecture and creative drama in favor of creative drama on all four areas of social adjustment in children with ADHD (p<0.05). Conclusion: It is better to use creative drama compared to lectures in order to improve the social adjustment of children with ADHD.

The Effect of Braitonic Exercise on the Motor Skills of Educable Children with Intellectual Disability

Tue, 07/31/2018 - 14:51

Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of Braitonic exercise on the gross motor skills of educable boys with intellectual disability. Method: In this quasi-experimental study, from among educable male students with intellectual disability, 30 participants with the chronological age of 7-10 years who were free of any disease or movement limitation were selected. After matching based on age, height, and weight, they were randomly divided into two homogeneous groups: experimental (n=15) and control (n=15). Exercises were performed in three 60-minute sessions per week for 8 weeks. Ulrich’s Test of Gross Motor Development was used as pre- and posttest. Results: The results showed that there is no significant difference between the two groups on pretest, while significant differences were observed in the scores of the experimental group from pre- to posttest. In fact, the effect of Braitonic exercise the gross motor skills was confirmed. Conclusion: Based on findings, it seems that Braitonic exercise can help improve the motor skills of children with intellectual disability.

Career resiliency, coping styles, religious beliefs

Tue, 07/31/2018 - 14:51

Objective: This study aimed to examine the career resiliency of teachers of special schools based on coping styles with the mediating role of religious beliefs. Method: The statistical population of this descriptive-correlational study consisted of all teachers of special schools in Mazandaran Province, Iran. Through cluster sampling, 200 teachers of special schools were selected. In this study, the Special Education Career Resilience Scale (Sotomayor, 2012), the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (Endler & Parker, 1990), and the Centrality of Religiosity Scale-15 (Huber & Huber, 2012) were used. Results: Results showed that problem-focused coping style and emotion-focused coping style affect teachers’ career resiliency positively and negatively, respectively, and there is a significant positive correlation between religious belief and resiliency. In addition, all dimensions of religiosity have a significant positive correlation with coping style (problem-oriented). Moreover, religious beliefs have a mediating role between coping style and resiliency. Conclusion: By teaching appropriate coping styles to teachers, it is possible to increase their career resiliency which enhances the quality of teaching, thereby increasing learners’ ability to learn better.