Journal of Exceptional Children
The Effects of Spiritual Intelligence Training on Resiliency in Mothers of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Objective: Tolerance and resilience in the face of numerous problems faced by mothers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) plays a significant role in their health and that of their children. It is critical to identify training methods that can promote these abilities in mothers. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of spiritual intelligence training on the resilience of mothers of children with ADHD. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 30 mothers visiting private centers in Ahvaz, Iran, were selected through convenience sampling and randomly divided into experimental and control groups (n=15 each). Each group was assessed in terms of resilience on pre- and posttest and the experimental group received spiritual intelligence training. Data were analyzed using ANCOVA. Results: The results showed an increased resilience in the experimental group following training. The difference in posttest scores of resilience was significant across groups (p=0.001). Conclusion: The findings showed that spiritual intelligence training increased the scores of resiliency. Thus, spiritual intelligence training significantly improves the resilience of mothers of children with ADHD.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of cognitive games (games based on executive functioning) on the attention and response inhibition of students with dyscalculia. Method: This study used the pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design with a control group. In this study, 20 students with dyscalculia selected through purposive sampling were randomly divided into control and experimental groups (n=10 each). The experimental group participated in twelve 60-minute sessions of cognitive games for six weeks. The omission error and commission error sub-scales of the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) were utilized to evaluate attention and response inhibition performance, respectively. Data were analyzed by MANCOVA. Results: The analysis of the data revealed a significant difference in results between the experimental group and the control group following intervention. Conclusion: Cognitive games improve the attention and response inhibition performance of students with dyscalculia
The Role of Parent-Child Interaction and Sensory Processing Pattern in Predicting Children's Internalizing and Externalizing Problems
Comparison of Mental Health, Psychological Capital, and Marital Intimacy in Mothers of Children with Hearing Impairment, Those with Intellectual Disabilities, and Normal Children
Objective: This research was conducted in order to compare mental health, psychological capital, and marital intimacy in mothers of children with hearing impairment, those with intellectual disabilities, and normal children. Method: The statistical population of the present descriptive-comparative study consisted of all mothers of children with hearing impairment (n=50), those with intellectual disabilities (n=50), and normal children (n=50) in care centers and primary schools of Khoy, Iran, in 2016. From this population, a sample of 120 people (40 per group) was selected using simple random sampling. Participants completed the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), Luthans’ Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ), and the Marital Intimacy Scale (MIS). Data were analyzed in SPSS 21 using MANOVA and one-way ANOVA with Scheffe post-hoc test. Results: Data analysis showed a statistically significant difference between mothers of children with intellectual disabilities and those with hearing impairment on the one hand, and mothers of normal children on the other, in terms of general mental health (f=12.20, p=0.0001) and psychological capital (f=14.36, p=0.0001(. However, there was no difference between the three groups in terms of marital intimacy (f=0.603, p=0.508). Conclusion: Mothers of children with mental disabilities and those with hearing impairment have a lower mental health and psychological capital than mothers of normal children, but mothers of all three groups have the same level of marital intimacy.
Effect of Self-Controlled Feedback and its Frequency on Motor Learning in Children with Hearing Impairment
The Efficacy of a Social Skills Group Intervention Based on DeRosier Program for Improving Comunication, Cooperation, Assertion, and Empathy in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Improving the Social Adjustment of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder by Expanding the Zone of Proximal Development in the Context of Creative Drama
Objective: The present study aimed to examine the effectiveness of creative drama on the social adjustment of children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by expanding the zone of proximal development. Method: This controlled quasi-experimental study used the pretest-posttest design. The sample included 30 participants selected through convenience sampling and based on medical conditions (whether they took medications or not) with their parents’ permission and then randomly assigned to experimental and control groups (n=15 each). The experimental group was taught using creative drama and the control group was instructed using lectures. The data collection instrument was a researcher-made 28-item social adjustment questionnaire scored on a Likert scale. The questionnaire measured four areas of social adjustment in children, including a) participating in group work, b) respecting the rights of others, c) belief in the values and ethics of the group or community, and d) commitment to and respect for family and friends. ANCOVA was applied for data analysis. Results: Results indicated that there is a significant difference between the effects of lecture and creative drama in favor of creative drama on all four areas of social adjustment in children with ADHD (p<0.05). Conclusion: It is better to use creative drama compared to lectures in order to improve the social adjustment of children with ADHD.
The Effect of Braitonic Exercise on the Motor Skills of Educable Children with Intellectual Disability
Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of Braitonic exercise on the gross motor skills of educable boys with intellectual disability. Method: In this quasi-experimental study, from among educable male students with intellectual disability, 30 participants with the chronological age of 7-10 years who were free of any disease or movement limitation were selected. After matching based on age, height, and weight, they were randomly divided into two homogeneous groups: experimental (n=15) and control (n=15). Exercises were performed in three 60-minute sessions per week for 8 weeks. Ulrich’s Test of Gross Motor Development was used as pre- and posttest. Results: The results showed that there is no significant difference between the two groups on pretest, while significant differences were observed in the scores of the experimental group from pre- to posttest. In fact, the effect of Braitonic exercise the gross motor skills was confirmed. Conclusion: Based on findings, it seems that Braitonic exercise can help improve the motor skills of children with intellectual disability.
Objective: This study aimed to examine the career resiliency of teachers of special schools based on coping styles with the mediating role of religious beliefs. Method: The statistical population of this descriptive-correlational study consisted of all teachers of special schools in Mazandaran Province, Iran. Through cluster sampling, 200 teachers of special schools were selected. In this study, the Special Education Career Resilience Scale (Sotomayor, 2012), the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (Endler & Parker, 1990), and the Centrality of Religiosity Scale-15 (Huber & Huber, 2012) were used. Results: Results showed that problem-focused coping style and emotion-focused coping style affect teachers’ career resiliency positively and negatively, respectively, and there is a significant positive correlation between religious belief and resiliency. In addition, all dimensions of religiosity have a significant positive correlation with coping style (problem-oriented). Moreover, religious beliefs have a mediating role between coping style and resiliency. Conclusion: By teaching appropriate coping styles to teachers, it is possible to increase their career resiliency which enhances the quality of teaching, thereby increasing learners’ ability to learn better.